Except where otherwise noted, all of the materials found on this web site are generally:

© Copyright 1998 - 2002 Ward Shrake
All rights reserved.

While the copyright holder wishes to retain full and unhindered current and future creative ownership and control over his written works, he does hereby give his written permission for any reasonable "Fair Use" of any of his individual documents stored on this web site and/or his web site as a whole.

Any and all "for profit" or commercial uses of the author's copyrighted materials without prior written consent may be in violation of applicable international copyright laws, especially when improperly credited.


This web site and the texts stored on it were created by an individual, largely as a self-directed, uncompensated act of preservation of certain information and/or "at risk" artifacts of modern computer and video game history. Others assisted these efforts at times, and to the best of my knowledge all who desired public credits received them.

No official connections exist between this individual and any other person or company named herein, and no such connections should be construed by the site's readers. The statements and speculations found here were not approved by any outside agencies of any kind. No warrantee or guarantee of any kind is expressly or implicitly given for any of the information stored on this web site or within any individual document, for any purpose(s) including historical and/or factual accuracy. The info was supplied freely and has no money-back guarantee.

Other's trademarks and copyrights:

Certain trademarked symbols and/or names may be referenced or used within this site's content. (To include all references to "Philips" or "Emerson" and/or many other companies globally, some defunct as of nearly two decades ago, or at least no longer involved in manufacturing or marketing the types of products discussed here.)

All such trademarked names and/or symbols are herein acknowledged to be owned and controlled by parties other than myself. Personally, I have no wish to "dilute" the market force of such things or confuse anyone, even though I don't see how that would even be possible in some cases? In any case, please note that I am only using such names and/or symbols here in the context of a researcher or historian -- a "Digital Archaeologist" -- who wishes to speak plainly. I consider most of the texts found on this site to be of a "scholarly" nature, while recognizing that the subject matter is little studied in "serious" academic circles at present, and may never be.

No trademark or copyright infringement is intended by the site's creator. A good faith effort was made to protect other's creative rights. (My earliest Internet self-publishing efforts followed what seemed to be the hobby niche's accepted standards at the time. My later efforts improved as I began to question those loose standards, largely out of empathy for others. I've since made my strong feelings on the matter known to those who re-published some of my own works in print, with limited results. I feel that the retro-gaming hobby on the whole currently pays little attention to these matters, but I try to do better.) To the best of my personal knowledge and my own non-expert belief, this current version of the site is in full compliance wherever possible. However, if any of the materials found on this site are in fact copyrighted or trademarked by any other parties, and if those parties does not approve of the use or inclusion of their materials on this web site, then please contact the site owner for either modification or deletion, as appropriate. This site's creator does understand a desire for creative control and will gladly cooperate.

Site backups:

The copyright holder (who is obviously concerned with certain preservation efforts and who does not wish to think of himself as a hypocrit) hereby gives individuals and non-profit groups his written permission to make a personal "backup" copy of this web site in its complete and unaltered form, or to save complete and unaltered copies of any of the individual texts found on this web site, for any reasonable non-commercial uses.

Examples :

  • An individual may make an off-line backup copy of this entire web site on their own personal computer's hard drive, for their own personal non-profit use, with my blessing.

  • Also with my blessing: a text-preservation group (such as "Project Gutenberg" or similar), or an informal computer club, or a formal user's group could include a backup copy of this web site's entire contents on (say) a CD-ROM solely for non-profit distribution to other interested parties.

  • I can't currently imagine an educational institution wanting to make backup copies of the site for their student's non-profit educational uses, but I likely would not object. (Unless it was to ridicule the plain, semi-ugly site layout! But feel free to knock the hideous Arcadia-colored-neon-bar background graphics!)

  • But an unauthorized "mirror" of this site made publicly available anywhere on the Internet, while the author's own "official" version of the site remains publicly accessible, is NOT an approved use. (I lose some of my much-desired creative control over my own works, and the public may also end up being confused.)

  • Note that no copying of any of these materials is authorized if the copy is then edited or altered by other parties (especially if such alterations go uncredited), unless those alterations would leave the content itself intact while merely changing some underlying technical aspect of the storage methods or medium used.

This is an attempt to balance the author's creative control with other's preservation efforts. I don't want edited or altered versions of my works being mistaken for my own unedited works, but I don't mind true "backups". Should something happen to me, I don't want others to "lose" the resources I worked hard to create. On the other hand, it makes me uncomfortable to think that I would not be able to exercise creative freedom as I see fit.

I will leave the "how to make a backup" part to your imagination, other than to say that this version of this web site is pretty small by current Internet standards, and therefore should present no significant downloading problems. (Roughly 2.5 megabytes total.) A number of good programs exist just to download a local copy of an Internet web site, and to adjust that local copy so that it runs fine in its new environment. You will have to download a few yourself, and try them out. (I have used "WebCopier" myself and liked it but "Your Mileage May Vary".)

Credits and plagiarism:

If you use any of this information in any future published works, please make a reasonable "good faith" effort to credit any and all contributors as fully and fairly as possible. Ideally, I hope that you would use the level of implied respect for others works that is routinely required in an educational research paper to avoid accusations of plagiarism, for example. My Internet publishing and reading experiences tell me that most of the user-written texts made for use within a hobby niche rarely do that, but I ask that you please make your own best, honest efforts.

The official Internet home of this web site is:


If you are viewing this site from elsewhere on the World Wide Web you may be viewing an unauthorized "mirror" or even an out-dated, earlier copy of this web site. To avoid reader confusion I would prefer to have only my own version online. If you are aware of such a place please contact that site's owner and/or this site's owner. Be polite if you do so, and merely point them towards this site so they can read my wishes here for themselves. Thank you!

Ward Shrake, December 2002